A Genetic Glimpse Into Human Evolution

A genetic glimpse into recent human evolution gives very interesting results. Studies indicate that the evolution of man from his ancestoral apes stretches over 6 million years. This evolution was characterized by development of various traits that include bigger brains, hunting, and bipedal walking in the earlier years. Human evolution enabled man to acquire culture and knowledge, leading to a new level of civilization. Interestingly, evolution is still happening to-date, and genetics could be the main cause.

Recent Human Evolution

Unknown to many, the human race continues to evolve, despite technological and industrial innovations. For example, today’s human brain is significantly smaller than that of our ancestors some 30,000 years ago. According to research, the human brain used to measure 1500 cubic centimeters, yet today’s average size of the human brain is just 1350 cubic centimeters, yet we possess far more intellect now than our ancestors did. Another recent milestone in the human evolutionary journey has to do with the ability to fight diseases. A study done in 2007 revealed that in the last 40,000 years, humans have developed 1800 genes devoted to fighting dangerous diseases such as Malaria. In addition humans have also developed lactose tolerance another indicator that human evolution is still ongoing. So, what is the link between the latest human evolution story and genetic make-up?

Biologists Had Problems since Darwin’s Time

The explanation of evolution and human genetics did not start with recent human evolution. More than a century ago, Darwin and other scientists had difficulties explaining to the world how complex structures in nature came to be. Darwin introduced the evolution idea about one and a half decades ago, but the debate about this issue is still raging. Recent human evolution researchers are still looking into the linkage between evolution and genetics, and are making significant headway. Examples areas biologists have been studying include the complex nature of the eye, the exquisite mechanism of the limbs, and the merging of trillions of cells to form an organism.

Although it is easier to buy the idea of an animal gaining new traits through natural selection, it is the possibility of development of new complex structures that still features, as revealed through a genetic glimpse into recent human evolution.

The East Asian Evolution Example

The study of the link between human genes and evolution has enabled researchers to discover a mutation gene in East Asians. East Asians have distinctive traits, for example smaller breasts, narrower nostrils, and thicker hair shafts. Scientists at Cambridge’s Broad Institute have established that a gene mutation in a gene called EDAR was responsible for this variation 35,000 years ago. This discovery could explain the evolution signs seen in the rest of human race. Scientists argue that human genome sites are responsible for the recent human evolution that varies from continent to continent. However, scientists are yet to determine which of the effects caused by the mutation was dominant for natural selection to occur.

Latest Support For Genetic Influence in Latest Human Evolution

In an effort to explain human evolution in East Asia and elsewhere, researchers have probed into a hypothesis that was developed 40 years ago. The hypothesis states that human evolution must be based on gene mutation because human and chimpanzee gene proteins are almost similar. Researchers at Cornell University have established that DNA mutations played a monumental role in the divergence between chimpanzees and humans 6 million years ago. Since the 1970’s, biologists and other scientists have tried to connect the concept of gene regulation to human evolution. All along, the argument has been that the genes proteins for both chimpanzees and humans are 99 percent identical (“New Research Backs”, 2013).


Given the findings of a genetic glimpse into recent human evolution, it is certain that Darwin’s natural selection argument still holds. Recent research has suggested that gene mutation is at the center of latest human evolution, as suggested in the East Asia case. East Asian variation may have happened thousands of years ago, but the entire human race continues to evolve in very distinctive ways. As genes continue to flow within populations, racial differences may finally disappear. In addition, the future human populations may be more resistant to killer diseases such as heart disease and AIDS.


Planet Biyo

Planet Biyo is a minor planet named after a Filipino teacher, Dr. Josette Biyo, who was the first Asian winner of the Intel Excellence in Teaching Award. It is listed as planet 13241 by the International Astronomical Union and can be found in the Main Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is between three to nine kilometers in diameter. Its semi-major axis falls 2.2731250 astronomical units away from the center of the sun, and its perihelion distance (or the body’s distance from the sun at its closest approach) fall at 2.1269244 AU. The axis of 13241 Biyo has an inclination of 7.30417 degrees, and its mean anomaly falls at 285.18521 degrees. It completes one orbital rotation roughly every 1251 days, or 3.43 years, at 0.28758689 degrees per day.13241 Biyo has been observed 549 times since it was first seen in 1975. It was 1.979 AU or 29,605,418 kilometers from Earth (2.397 AU or 35,858,609 kilometers from the sun) when it was last observed on 17 November 2009.

Little is known about 13241 Biyo because of its dimunitive size and the dense concentration of asteroids in its vicinity. There are many minor planets in our solar system. Planet Biyo is one of them, and a lot of scientists are astonished with these discoveries. Exploring the unknown in the vast of space is really amazing for us human beings. Space and time has ever been a mystery, there are  still a lot of things that we need to understand about the solar system. It’s always a dream Discovering planets like the planet Biyo is really a step in achieving this dream.

Minor planets aren’t that popular to some but they are still studied by our scientists. A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun that is neither a planet nor originally classified as a comet. Minor planets can be dwarf planets, asteroids, trojans, centaurs, Kuiper belt objects, and other trans-Neptunian objects. The orbits of 620,000 minor planets were archived at the Minor Planet Center by 2013.  Minor-planet naming is not always a free-for-all: there are some populations for which rules have developed about the sources of names. For instance, centaurs (orbiting between Saturn and Neptune) are all named after mythological centaurs. While Jupiter trojans are named after heroes from the Trojan War.

Studying planets are always difficult but that’s not stopping us discover the wonders and mystery of the universe. We study our atmosphere to learn more new things. The atmosphere is an important transitional zone between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and radiation belts. Not all planets have atmospheres: their existence depends on the mass of the planet, and the planet’s distance from the Sun, too distant and frozen atmospheres occur. Besides the four gas giant planets, almost all of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, and Mars) have significant atmospheres. Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn’s moonTitan and Neptune’s moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around Mercury as well.

Exploring and knowing the “unknown” are very helpful in knowing what’s “beyond”. It’s always fascinating each time we human beings discover something new, and Planet Biyo is a testament to that.

The Hottest Places on Earth

When people start planning about their holiday escapades, all that runs through their minds is a series of the most exotic, refreshing and cool sceneries on earth. After the following review of the hottest places on earth you might be prompted to venture into finding out how the people of these places manage to put up with the extreme heat. There is one thing that is common in all this places: their beautiful landscape. Some of them even have a very rich historical background.

Badlands in Australia


This comes as a no surprise. Australia is known to be the driest continent that supports human life. The better part of it is a desert. Things get to the extreme during the dry period as there is not even a single cloud to hold back the scorching sun. The highest temperature that has been recorded here is 156.7 degrees Fahrenheit in the year 2003. Only a few people, who have adapted to these hot conditions, live in this place.

The Land of Dallol in Ethiopia

The Land of Dallol in Ethiopia

Dallol is a town found in the Afar Depression. No other place in the history of mankind has ever recorded a higher average annual temperature than Dallol. It held this record for seven consecutive years from 1960 to 1966. The town is on record for having recorded 94 degrees Fahrenheit as its minimum average annual temperature for the above stated period. The unbearable conditions can also be attributed to the fact that there are volcanically active mountains in the region. The heat does not seem to die down in this place. Despite all this, Dallol used to be a flourishing mining center with plenty of people working in the mines. This land is also blessed with hydrothermal deposits which are common in such like places. Consequently, there are very few people here especially in the volcanically active areas.

Flaming Mountains, China


The name alone is enough to drive home the message. Situated in Tian Shan Mountain range, the temperatures of this place are simply unbearable. The place earned its name due to the striking gullies that made it get extremely hot. This was a very long time ago and the gullies have since been reduced to red sandstone that look like a bright flame. The hot nature of the place can also be linked to the mountains found here, as they are undeniably very hot. According to a reading taken in 2008, the place recorded a historical 152.2 degrees Fahrenheit that was not recorded anywhere else that particular year. There is no human settlement in this area as it would be very difficult for them to survive for long.

Tirat Zvi, Israel


Tirat Zvi is found in the Beit She’m valley in the ancient Israel. The place has a lot of significant religious importance to the natives of this land. Despite the fact that this place is found near River Jordan, it does not prevent the scorching temperatures from reigning superior. This is so especially during the summer season. However, the natives of the place counter the scorching effects by swimming in the pools of water that are found in plenty here. Each household has a canopy shed to cover them when they can no longer find comfort in the pools. June 1942 was a historic year for this place as it recorded 129 degrees Fahrenheit unheard of anywhere in the history of Asia.

Death Valley, United States


This place puts the North American continent on the map as one of the hottest places on earth. It is located in California in the Mojave Desert. There is no other place on earth that has ever recorded direct temperatures as high as the one this place recorded in 2012. The reading was as high as 134 degrees. This valley has the capacity to support life since kit foxes and rodents are seen having their round of enjoyment at night when the temperatures are low. As expected, no human population is settled here since the conditions are not inviting and are unfriendly for future stay.

Timbuktu, Mali


Talk of the Trans Saharan Trade and Timbuktu is sure to feature as one of the crucial trade routes. As time goes by, the Sahara desert seems to be casting its spell over this historic land that is known to contain the world’s best collection of manuscripts. The place has a steady human population since the conditions have not reached the climax to warrant their take off.

Wait till You see These Buildings…

In recent times, even architects have realized the importance of space-conscious and environment friendly designs and initiatives. When it comes to futuristic buildings, the structure alone does not tell the whole story. Such buildings are not only visually appealing, but also offer some key solutions to problems that lie ahead.

In the last few years, many buildings have been constructed with high-rise rooftop forests, water harvesting from the clouds, and charging stations for electric cars. All these buildings give us an idea about what the future holds. At least for a moment, they tell us what we can expect or anticipate from the future. Let us tell you about 6 most futuristic buildings in the world.


Tjuvholmen Icon Building, Oslo



This Arts & Culture center was designed by Renzo Piano. The building was opened in 2012 right beside an unused harbor just South West of Oslo’s City Center. In this building, three different sections are linked with bridges. These include a museum, culture center and office space. Canals have been formed from reclaimed land. You can even see a sculpture park sloping towards the sea.

This entire project has been designed and developed along a new promenade beginning from Aker Brygge and ending on the sea at a beautiful floating dock. Thus, the building provides uninterrupted visual contact with water. If you take an aerial route to view this building, it looks like a docked spaceship. The roof looks curved, dipping down to meet parklands.


Museum of Old And New Art, Tasmania, Australia



Unlike other such buildings in the world, this one tried to hide from plain sight. In order to design and construct this building, Art Collector and Entrepreneur, David Walsh hired Melbourne Architect, Nonda Katsalidis. The building has been constructed as a three-level structure in the cliffs around Berriedale peninsula close to Hobart.

A major section of the building was constructed underground to preserve to historical Roy Grounds Modernist Houses’ on this property. Moreover, David Walsh wanted a museum that could sneak up on visitors instead of broadcasting its presence. Subterranean areas in this museum have no windows. The visitors have to descend a staircase and work their way towards the surface. The theme of the museum seems based on avant-garde art, most of which concerns with death and sex.

Palazzo Lombardia, Milan



This office tower gave a completely eco-friendly and cool’ look to Milan’s Garibaldi-Repubblica district in 2011. This building has been designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. It stands tall at 525 feet and connects light-filled offices with outdoor areas.

This is one of the largest public spaces in the world. The roof of the building has been covered with transparent pillows’ made from a fluorine-based plastic called ETFE film. The building also includes other eco-friendly features like active climate walls, green roof, two layers of separated glass, rotating vertical blades for shade and geothermal heating system.


Perot Museum of Nature and Science, Dallas




This museum was opened for the public in December 2012. It is a huge 180,000 square foot museum. The architecture was designed by Pritzker Prize winner, Thom Mayne. Since his firm, Morphosis Architects, aims to create a beautiful urban environment for futuristic buildings, it adheres to all kinds of green principles.

Some features in this building include a 54-foot continuous-flow escalator in a tube-like glass structure, landscaping including a roofscape with drought-tolerant species and Leap Frog Forest’ with glowing amphibians.


Galaxy Soho Building, Beijing


China has always been famous for speedy and bold construction work. Hence, no one was surprised when this cool building arrived in 2012 in Beijing. The Galaxy Soho building has been designed by British-Iraqi architect, Zaha Hadid. In fact, she was the first woman to win the Pritzker Prize. This building provides an 18-story office space, with retail and entertainment complex.


It consists of various bridges, platforms and four-domed structures crafted from stone, aluminium, stainless steel and glass. The building has been inspired by nature and creates a harmonious effect on visitors.


The Crystal, London




This one is a dynamic, low-rise building made from glass. It was unveiled in 2012. Since then, it has been considered to be one of the greenest buildings in the world. It has been constructed in the heart of London’s Green Enterprise District, the Royal Victoria Docks. As the name suggests, The Crystal has been inspired by crystalline forms. It includes innovative and futuristic measures like solar heating, black water treatment, charging stations for electric cars and rainwater harvesting.


There are many other futuristic buildings in the world. However, these 6 have been the most popular and coolest’. There’s no doubt that we will see many more such buildings in the coming years.

Stem Cell Research Pioneering Tissue Replacement and New Organs

Stem cells are basically undifferentiated biological cells which are capable of differentiating into specialized cells and division through mitosis—to produce multiple new stem cells. They act as power packed repair systems for our body and are used for replenishing damaged adult tissues.

Read on for valuable insights into how stem cell research is being used to pioneer new organs (even a heart) and tissue replacement –in more ways than one.

Synthetic universal tissues with Stem Cells

According to research reports, embryonic stem cells are capable of being spun into viable polymer threads. This technique is being used for weaving flexible synthetic tissues which are capable of adapting to all kinds of transplant environments. This approach is an extremely positive step for the replacement and production of artificially created organs. These artificial organs are capable of weaving stem cells into universal synthetic tissues, which give humans a new lease of life.

Techniques for shaping living stem cells into synthetic tissues

The techniques for shaping living human cells into custom-made tissues are many. They include the processes which are based on inkjet printers and those which require air pressure to pull human cell solutions into long threads. These techniques are helpful in weaving networks of threads, which contain live brain cells– without leading to their breakdown or damage.

Similar techniques can be employed for creating threads associated with embryonic stem cells. One of the most popular techniques is electro-spraying, which uses two stainless steel needles, to combine a stream of biodegradable and viscous polymers with suspensions of embryonic stem cells. Voltage is applied to the needle to charge the polymer cells and this accelerates an “earthed” copper ring—located a short distance away. Single thin threads are produced by this technique.

Creation of new organ structures

Blood flow networks in bio-scaffolds boast of fat, blood, and bone marrow. Stem cell research is now being used to create three dimensional, rejection free organ structures.

With stem cell research pioneering new organs, more novel approaches are coming to the forefront. Explanted microcirculatory beds (EMBs) containing capillary beds, efferent vein, afferent artery and parenchymal tissues are being used to preserve EMB viability and function in bioreactors. This rapidly evolving field of stem cell biology is being seeded with multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These are three distinct populations connected with stem cell research.

Way Forward

Synthetic tissue and scaffolds structures are moving towards fully functional artificial organs. Progenitor cells and stem cells are acting as repair systems for the body and are being widely used for replenishing adult tissues. They have the potential of differentiating/developing into all types of specialized cells – endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm and maintaining the normal turnover of the regenerative parts of the human system. These organs include intestinal tissues, blood or skin.

With further advancements in stem cell research, practitioners are now looking towards proven and tested methods of pioneering new organs –including a new heart. This advance has managed to clear away some major hurdles linked with bioengineered replacement organs.

An Exploration of the Fibreoptic Revolution

During the last couple of decades the world of computers and technology has been developing at an incredibly fast rate, with nearly all devices getting exponentially faster, smaller and more powerful. One of the most important breakthroughs we made was in communication and online data transfer; today, it is possible for virtually anyone connected to the worldwide web to download or upload any piece of information they want at unprecedented speeds, thanks to the innovation we refer to as fibreoptic cable. As a matter of fact, it is safe to say that the advent of fibreop technology sparked what can be best described as a revolution in communications, and what follows is an exploration of how this breakthrough has paid off for mankind.

A Brief Glance at Fibreoptic Technology

To explain it as simply as possible, fibreoptic technology allows for the transfer of light through both long and short distances with the help of a series of transparent fibres. In other words, this means that it is capable of transmitting information at the speed of light. Regardless of where it is installed or for what purpose, a fibreop system is built out of three components.

First, there is the core, and it is the innermost part of the cable. Depending on the situation, the core is either assembled from plastic or glass and is responsible for carrying the light signal. Right outside of the core you will find the next component, the cladding. It is responsible for keeping the light signal inside the core and is made from a material with a low refractive index. Finally, the last component making up the fibreop cable is the jacket; made from polymer or glass, it is the cable’s line of defense against any environmental hazards it may encounter.

How the Fibreoptic Cable Functions

Because the cladding always has a lower refractive index than the core, the light signal travels by bouncing off the cladding at angles greater than 90 degrees, ensuring there is absolutely no loss of energy, even if the fibre happens to be curved. This mechanism allows the data to travel at great speeds without slowing down or being lost in the process.

As far as the splicing process goes (connecting one fibre end to another) there are two different methods one can use. The first one is referred to as a mechanical splice for it is made with the help of a mechanical sleeve which aligns two cleaved fibre ends. The second process is known as fusion splice, and it is performed with the help of heat.

The Benefits of Fibreoptic Technology

And so now that the fibreop technology itself has been explored, it is time to look at the features which make it such an important breakthrough in communications technology. To begin with, fibre cables are always very flexible, which is quite advantageous for commercial buildings where there are countless twists and turns to contend with.

The second advantage of the fibreoptic cable has already been mentioned earlier: its ability to transmit information at the speed of light. This means that you can easily achieve download and upload speeds of over 40 gigabytes per second, have a high-quality television cable connection with no interruptions, and even hold crystal-clear long-distance conversations over the phone. To explain it in other terms, this is the fastest and most reliable data transfer method that we have been able to come up with, and in terms of speed and quality it simply blows all the other alternatives out of the water.

Last, but definitely not least, fibreop cable is by far cheaper than the regular electric copper cables due to the widespread availability of the parts needed in its construction. That’s right, in addition to being much better, fibreoptic technology is also cheaper than what we are currently using.

Of course, nothing in this life is perfect, and fibreoptic technology does have one small flaw: if the wires are installed too deep underground gravity and the weight of earth will cause them to slowly bend downwards over time. This means that in order to maintain the cable under such conditions, rare but regular maintenance work will be required.

Final Words on Fibreop

With everything being said and done, it can easily be stated that despite its small flaw, fibreoptic technology is definitely here to stay and is the next big thing in the world of communications. It is more effective, reliable, simpler and cheaper than all the options we have had up until now, and if the progress keeps on going at this rate, we’ll probably develop teleportation technology next.

Can You Regrow Teeth As An Adult?

Having perfectly shaped teeth is something that everyone desires, but unfortunately not everyone was born with naturally nice teeth. There are many things that can alter your smile, but one of the worst things that could ever happen is having your tooth get chipped or completely cracked off. Getting implants is probably the last resort people turn to so that they can finally get back their smile. Having a missing tooth or a cracked one, can change the way you smile forever and so people tend to spend a ton of money on all sorts of procedures. However, people tend to wonder if there is any way to regrow new teeth even if they are adults.

Can You Regrow Teeth As An Adult?

Unfortunately, the third molars are the human’s only set of teeth which can grow back when you’re an adult. All humans are born with two sets of teeth, their primary which grow when they’re still babies and then the secondary set that comes soon after their primary fall off. Therefore, after their second set has accidentally fallen or cracked off, there is no possible way to grow another set back naturally. However, much debate has been revolving the human ability to regrow new teeth after they have fallen ever since scientists have found alligators to have this nifty capability.

An alligator has been shown to regenerate every lost tooth over 50 times. This has been significantly great news for people, especially hockey players, as researchers at University of South California have been studying how alligators’ teeth regrow to try and check if doctors can one day stimulate the adult humans body to automatically replace any tooth that they have lost. However, for now, doctors, especially dentists have been telling people to instead get dental implants while this study hasn’t been fully thought out yet.

Benefits Of Dental Implants

The amount of benefits to dental implants are quite endless. One of the main advantages to them is the fact that they restore your old smile back and make them appear as natural as is possible. By simply replacing the whole tooth, including its root allow dentists to replicate the functions and appearance of natural teeth using a strong and stable foundation which allows comfortable chewing and biting to patient. Plus, nothing in your mouth will look or feel artificial whatsoever.

On top of that, dental implants have been proven to preserve the natural facial structures, as a loss of teeth can cause sagging and other facial deformity. By preventing your bone resorption which would normally occur from the loss of certain teeth, your facial structures will be able to remain intact. Having your face to collapse is the last thing that you want, because it can change the way you look forever.

Your smile will also be improved when replaced by a dental implant. Even when just one tooth has been lost, long term esthetics truly are a smart thing to do to prevent any negative factors from occurring. This is essentially important for the front part of your mouth, as it will prevent visible bone defects and instead create a natural appearance.

Dental implants will also enhance your overall quality of life, because they function just like natural teeth. These implants are supported replacement teeth, and so the appearance of your smile will be natural and they will feel natural as well. The result basically is increased comfort and an increased confidence when you speak, smile, and eat. If dentures and other partials tend to be replaced with implanted supported teeth, your overall enhanced quality of life will be more significant.

Lastly, you will also be able to have a more improved oral hygiene. It’s way easier for you to care for your implanted teeth because they also have the same texture as regular teeth. It is also a lot more convenient for you to clean an entire set of implants supported from replacement teeth compared to the traditional denture.

If you want to restore your smile back to normal due to a loss of certain teeth, then you should really consider to get dental implants. Since there aren’t any natural ways to regrow new teeth, consider getting dental implants to get your teeth back.

How Many Burglars Does It Take To Steal A Light Bulb?

Tired of getting your light bulbs stolen by filthy burglars? Sick of living in a dark house?

In the Middle Ages, this problem was not an issue at all. Not only because they had pits with crocodiles, cauldrons of boiling oil and goblins watching over the treasure piles; also because the light bulb was not invented yet.

Unfortunately, we live in the world of the technological revolution. We have to spend out meaningless lives surrounded by all these nasty technological miracles; playing disgusting high quality video games, watching repulsively good TV shows, and lying in horrifyingly comfortable intelligent mattresses. That’s the world we are living in, and light bulbs are a very important part of that world.

Burglars are greedy and mischievous; they want all the light for themselves, and there’s only so much we can do to stop them. The times of the spiked fences, the killer swans and the magic secret doors are over, and now we are forced to cope with all sorts of gizmos created to make our lives easier. Who would really want that?

Modern home security systems are there to accomplish two goals: preventing burglars of entering your home and calling the police when they are inside. Nothing about killing or maiming them; that belongs to our glorious past, my friends. So, you may have an incredibly expensive system that will close the doors of your house -big deal- and, when the burglars manage to get in, call the police. Excuse me, but if you are not able to close your own doors or to call the police when a stranger is unscrewing your precious light bulbs, you have no right to be in this planet, sir. Or madam. Or whatever you are.

There are people who build Panic Rooms at their houses. For me, that idea is just crazy. Why would you want to have a room that inspires terror and despair inside their own homes? It’s way better to have that room outside, or way below. That’s what we call a proper dungeon, with monsters and ghosts and all that inspiring stuff. Let me tell you this: no dragon will agree to pile his treasures in a simple Panic Room. Dragons need caves, big spaces with rocks and moonlight entering through a tiny hole in the ceiling, not Jodie Foster screaming into a camera.

The last trend in security systems is the use of wireless technology. Those sneaky little invisible radio signals creep through your house, talking behind your back and shouting out loud when a burglar gets in. I’m sorry, but my mother in law is way better equipped for that job; not only she does all the things a wireless system can do, but she is also able to cook a poisonous casserole to kill all the guests. Beat that, modern technology!

Answering the original question, “How many burglars does it take to steal a light bulb?”, the answer is quite simple: You need eleven burglars to steal a light bulb.

  • One to plan the heist.
  • One to drive the car.
  • One to open the gate.
  • One to feed the dog.
  • One to cut the telephone lines.
  • One to force the door.
  • One to unscrew the light bulb.
  • One to carry it to the car.
  • One to sell the light bulb to a licensed black market fence.
  • One to watch the whole operation, eating burritos and saying “you are doing it wrong” every single minute.
  • And one to rule them all.

My final advise is to forget about modern technology, retire to a mountain, learn the language of the goats, and live unhappily ever after.